On the old Roman calendar, September was the seventh month of the year in counting March as the first. Among the festivals observed in September were several honoring Jupiter. He was hailed as the chief of the gods and had many epithets as a result.

As Jupiter Optimus Maximus, he occupied the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitoline hill with the goddesses Juno and Minerva. With them, he was honored with a Lectisternium (September 13) and with the Ludi Romani  (September 5-19). He was honored with festivals as Jupiter Liber and Jupiter Fulminator (September 1) and as Jupiter Stator (September 5).

In the early ages of Rome, a reckoning of the years was kept by driving a nail into the side wall of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. The ceremony of the the clavus annalis was performed by the consul or a dictator on the ides of each September.

Jupiter was regarded as the special protector of Rome, and his worship was under the care of the Flamen Dialis, the highest in rank of all the flamens. The consuls worshipped him upon entering office, and the triumph of a general was a procession to his temple.

Here is some additional information about various things Jovian.

  • A thorough description of the Ludi Romani details events of the Great Games.
  • A long article details the origin, nature, and restrictions of a Roman Triumph.
  • A shorter article contrasts a triumph with the less solemn Roman Ovation.
  • A show at the Online Planetarium features the planet Jupiter and a link to its mythology.
  • An illustrated article explains and exhibits the eagle on coins of the Roman world.
  • A calendar for The Roman Month of September shows various festivals and other notable dates, like the Mercatus (September 20-24 ) and the battle of Actium (September 2).

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